Sterna Abogados: especialistas en derecho de extranjería. En Madrid.

  • Abogados expertos en Derecho de Extranjería en Madrid
  • Homologación de documentos y tarjetas de estudiantes

    Permiso de residencia por arraigo

  • Derecho de extranjería y casos de residencia de larga duración

    Obtención de la nacionalidad

  • Derechos de los inmigrantes en España

    Ven a España con permiso de trabajo

Sterna Abogados: servicios legales especializados en la movilidad internacional

Sterna Abogados: expertos en extranjería

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DEPENDENT FAMILY MEMBERS? WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?

DEPENDENT FAMILY MEMBERS? WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?

Some of the immigration, visa and permit regulations covering residence and work in Spain refer to the legal concept of ¨dependent family¨or ¨dependent family members¨. This refers to Spanish nationals requesting family reunification.

When establishing compliance of requirements, it is important to pinpoint the significance of ¨dependent family member¨. Directive 2004/38 establishes the Common European Framework to avoid the determination of different rules among EU member states regarding this issue.  It is necessary to be aware of relevant regulations and the jurisprudence of the court.

In any event, one must consider the characteristics and conditions of the Spanish national and their family member´s request for family reunification.  With this formula as a starting point, the Community legislator addresses the need for the applicant to cover the family member´s basic needs in order to protect family relations.


Translated by:  Katherine Pascal
PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE SUSPENDING DEPORTATION

PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE SUSPENDING DEPORTATION

It is recommended that in Contentious-Administrative Court cases regarding minor sanctioning administrative proceedings that may result in deportation, a protective measure should be taken to possibly suspend the decision of expulsion.  For example, this should be done in cases where foreigners are being deported due to their irregular stay in our country.

Due to length of time these proceedings usually take, judges may adopt to take these measures. If they don´t and the administrative order enforces it, it may cause irreparable damages that in the end cause them to lose a legitimate defense, as stated in Article 130 of the LJCA (Contentious-Administrative Jurisdiction CAJ).  It is understood that in ordering a foreigner to leave national territory causes a terrible disruption.  Du to the damages caused during the enforcement of expulsion, the presentation of additional evidence won´t be necessary.

In sum, it is common to suspend the expulsion order in situations such as these, until a final decision is given regarding the main issue.


Translated by: Katherine Pascal
¿Qué significa “familiar a su cargo”?

¿Qué significa “familiar a su cargo”?

¿Qué significa “familiar a su cargo”?
En algunas de las normas de extranjería y de los permisos y visados que pueden obtenerse con el fin de residir o trabajar en España, se hace mención al concepto jurídico de “familiar a su cargo”. Ello ocurre, por ejemplo, en los casos en los que se solicita la reagrupación familiar de un ascendiente por parte de un nacional español.

A la hora de establecer el cumplimiento de este requisito y de concretar el significado de un familiar que está bajo el cargo del solicitante, es necesario conocer la posición de la jurisprudencia y de la normativa aplicable y, en concreto, de la Directiva 2004/38 que establece el marco europeo común para evitar que los Estados miembros determinen reglas diferentes en este sentido.

Si bien, en todo caso, hay que tener en cuenta las características y condiciones en la que se encuentra el solicitante en cuestión y el familiar respecto al que se solicita la reagrupación, es posible establecer como punto de partida que con esta fórmula el legislador comunitario hace referencia a la necesidad que presenta el familiar de que el solicitante, nacional de un país miembro, le asista en sus necesidades básicas en un intento de proteger la institución familiar.
Medida cautelar de suspensión de la expulsión

Medida cautelar de suspensión de la expulsión

Medida cautelar de suspensión de la expulsión
Es recomendable que en un proceso judicial del orden contencioso administrativo sobre un expediente administrativo sancionador que puede tener como consecuencia la expulsión de una persona de nuestro país, por ejemplo por su estancia irregular, se incluya como petición en la demanda la adopción de la medida cautelar por la cual se suspenda el acuerdo de expulsión.

Habitualmente, por el tiempo por el cual se puede prologar un proceso de estas características, los Jueces suelen adoptar estas medidas puesto que de no hacerlo y que la resolución administrativa se ejecute se podrían derivar daños y perjuicios que serían de imposible reparación y, se perdería la legítima finalidad al recurso tal y como establece el artículo 130 LJCA. Se entiende que ordenar salir del territorio nacional a una persona que se encuentra en la actualidad en el mismo es un trastorno de la situación personal tremendamente transcendente y que, por lo tanto, el perjuicio causado ante la ejecución de la expulsión es tal que no es necesario ni que se presenten pruebas adicionales.

Como conclusión, en este tipo de situaciones será habitual que se suspenda la orden de salida hasta que recaiga sentencia firme sobre el asunto principal.
Refusal of Marriage Registration Contracted Abroad

Refusal of Marriage Registration Contracted Abroad

When a Spaniard marries a foreigner his must register his marriage with the Spanish Consulate where he has contracted the marriage or in the Central Spanish Registry so that such marriage may be put into effect in Spain.

During the registration process, which can take more than one year, Spanish authorities study the case to see if it is a valid marriage, fraudulent or a marriage of convenience.  The last two examples will in effect lead to a denial of registration, thereby making it impossible for the foreign spouse to request an EU family member residence permit.

A judge from any Spanish city civil registry may declare the marriage one of convenience and reject the request.  What is certain is that the majority of marriages declared as such are those that have been contracted abroad and go through a registration process at the consulate.

This being said, we may present a civil claim requesting that the judge recognizes the marriage and therefore prove that the marriage is not a fraudulent one.  To do this, we asked International Law Professor Alfonso Ortega Giménez for his take on what is considered to be a ¨marriage of convenience¨ in Spain and this is what he had to say:

If we want to fully understand this concept, we ought to turn to Council of the European Union Resolution, on 4 December 1997, regarding the measures to be taken in fighting against fraudulent marriage.  In accordance with the present resolution, a fraudulent marriage is: a marriage between a Member State national or a third country national that regularly resides in a Member State with a third country national, with the exclusive aim of evading entry and residence norms of third country nationals to obtain a residence permit or a residence authorization in a Member State.

Identified factors that lead to the assumption of a fraudulent marriage are the following:

a.) no proof of maintaining a life together
b.) the absence of adequate contribution to marriage liabilities
c.) the fact that spouses have not met prior to marriage
d.) the fact that the spouses show hesitatation when asked questions pertaining to one another´s personal and professional information such as: name, address, profession, nationality, the circumstances in which they met
e.) the fact that the spouses do not speak a common language
f.) that fact that they have paid a significant amount of money in order to celebrate the marriage- except in cases of a dowry where in some third country nations the presentation of a dowry is common practice
g.) the fact that either of the spouses has a history of fraudulent marriages or irregularities in terms of residency.

So far the Directorate General for Registers and Notaries (DGRN) has informed us of the following methods put forth to fight against and eliminate fraudulent marriages:
1.) On 9 January 1995, regarding the marriage proceedings when one of the partners lives abroad
2.) On 31 January  2006, regarding marriage complacency

In such a way, the DGRN has provided the Spanish civil registrars with a series of orientations and regulations to avoid the spread of complacency marriages that indicate, for example, that ¨it shall be presumed that real matrimonial consent exists¨ when one knows ¨basic personal and familiar information about the other.¨  However, those concerned must bear in mind certain rules such as when dealing with unknown information, it must be a clear and obvious error, not pertaining to specific details requiring the most concrete answer.  It cannot be predetermined on a ¨closed-list¨ of basic data.

Also, to accredit the existence of a real relationship between spouses, the following five rules must be taken into account:

-relationship duration
-type of relationship
-common language
-previous marriages
-indisputable proof of monetary assistance

The true objective of a marriage of convenience is to receive certain benefits in the Law of Nationality and Immigration.  On the one hand, the process by which the foreign spouse may acquire Spanish nationality is accelerated, inasmuch as the spouse of the Spanish citizen enjoys such priviledged position (= article 22.2 in our CC).  One year alone of residency in Spain is enough for the foreigner (= article 22.2 of CC), as long as he has resided in Spain legally, continuously and immediately prior to the application (= article 22.2 CC).  On the other hand, foreigners under this category are also granted an authorization of residence in Spain Spanish nationals.
since they hold the nationality of a third state that is not an EU Member State nor a EEE Member State and are either spouses or cohabitants of


Translated by: Katherine Pascal




New Protocol Regulates Handling of Unaccompanied Minors

New Protocol Regulates Handling of Unaccompanied Minors

A new protocol was recently signed on behalf of various government agencies and private groups covering the responsibility of authories handling foreign unaccompanied minors who enter Spain and the desired procedure to be followed.  The number of unaccompanied minors entering Spain has amounted to over 2,800 in 2013.

As stated in the Immigration Law Regulations, the protocol highlights the crucial aspects regarding the treatment of such minors and the role that all concerned institutions and governing bodies should play when dealing with them.

This protocol was established by expert agents who receive the children and know their situation first hand.  They have decided that initially the children should be put under police custody to verify if they do or do not have a record on file.  The recently established protocol addresses another aspect regarding which of the following options would most likely be in the child´s best interest; repatriation or remaining in Spain.

In any case, the protocol is looking for all institutions to work together in the best interest of the minor.


Translated by: Katherine Pascal
Residence or Long-stay Visa

Residence or Long-stay Visa

We must distinguish between two very important concepts in Immigration Law which define the legal treatment as well as the rights and duties of foreigner nationals on Spanish territory.

On the one hand, there are foreigners who find themselves in a situation of stay of less than 90 days in our country and who do not plan to exceed that limit, such as foreigners travelling for business or pleasure.  This is very different from cases where foreigners plan to spend more than 90 days in the country for work purposes or residency, where they must request the corresponding residence and work permit mentioned below.  In this case the foreigner must request a long-stay visa before the diplomatic authorities or at the Spanish Consulate in their country of origin.

On the other hand, foreigners who plan to stay in Spain for periods exceeding 90 days must request a residence permit.  It is possible that they will be granted a temporary residence permit that will allow them to reside in our country for a timeframe of less than five years.  Very often this is the response to work permits, family reunification and exceptional circumstances (arraigo).

Translated by: Katherine Pascal 


Nationality Acquisition Forms

Nationality Acquisition Forms


Spanish nationality applies to members of the national Spanish community.  There are different types of Spanish nationality acquisition forms collected by our legal system.

The following are conisiderd to be Spanish nationals according to the Spanish law:

  • Children born either inside or outside of Spain to a Spanish mother or father.  
  • Children born in Spain to foreign parents but with at least one parent born in Spain.  
  • Children born to foreign parents who lack Spanish nationality or applicable legislation that attributes the child´s nationality to that of their own.  (This is to avoid statelessness.)
  • Abandoned children, or those whose parentage has not been determined.  In these cases we must add the acquisition of Spanish nationality by adoption.  
All of the aforementioned examples of Spanish nationals are automatic, meaning that they don´t require separate procedures or declarations.

On the other hand, Spanish nationality acquisition forms are provided for processing certain nationality applications and for the fulfillment of necessary requirements to access it such as the following: choice acquisition, residence card o permit, matters addressed in articles 17, and matters stated in the Civil Code.  

Translated by: Katherine Pascal
The Supreme Court´s Decision on Foreigner Internment Center Regulations

The Supreme Court´s Decision on Foreigner Internment Center Regulations

As a response to complaints presented by various associations involved with immigrant rights, the Supreme Court has recently proceeded to override various provisions of Royal Decree 162/2014 of 14 March regarding Foreigner Internment Center Regulations (CIES), considering them contrary to the European law, the Spanish Immigration law, and the Constitutional Court jurisprudence.

Specifically speaking, one of the annulled provisions contradicted the European Directive 2008/115 of 16 December, which maintains in its articles the right of detained families awaiting deportation to to separate accommodation guaranteeing them adequate privacy.  This obligation was addressed very vaguely in former articles in the Foreigner Internment Center Regulations (CIES), far from what is stated in the strict formulations recognized by the European Standard.

In the same judgement they also overrode other provisions of the Operating Regulations and Internal Regime within the Foreigner Internment Centers, addressing the possible foundation of new centers and internal records due to considering them contrary to what is clearly written in the Immigration Law and the Constitutional Court jurisprudence.


Translated by: Katherine Pascal
Expulsion of Foreigners

Expulsion of Foreigners

Spanish legislation covers the different cases in which a foreigner may be deported from Spanish territory.  Generally speaking, in such cases the Commission is the designated authority chosen to represent the foreigner and the conducts presented in Law 4/2000 regarding the rights and liberties of foreign nationals in Spain and their social integration.  Sections of this law pertain to the severity of the situation, whether it takes place inside or outside of the country, specifying if the act shall be considered a crime resulting in imprisonment for more than one year.

In the event of such expulsion, any residence and work permit becomes ineffective.  The file will be archived if the applicant has just initiated the process of applying for the residence and work permit.

Certain people in Spain may only be expelled from country if they commit an offense classified as a serious infringement in article 53.1 of Law 4/2000 or if they have repeated such offense within a year.  These people include the following: persons born in Spain who have legally lived in the country during the last five years, people with a long-stay residence permit, and people of Spanish origin who have lost the nationality.


Translated by: Katherine Pascal
Sentencia del Supremo sobre el Reglamento de los CIES

Sentencia del Supremo sobre el Reglamento de los CIES

Sentencia del Supremo sobre el Reglamento de los CIES
El Tribunal Supremo ha procedido a anular recientemente varios preceptos del Real decreto 162/2014, de 14 de marzo, reglamento de los Centros de Internamiento de Extranjeros (CIES) por considerarlos contrarios al Derecho Europeo, la Ley de Extranjería española y la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Constitucional como respuesta a los recursos presentados por varias asociaciones involucradas en el respeto de derechos de inmigrantes.

En concreto alguno de las disposiciones anuladas contradecían la Directiva Europea 2008/115, de 16 de diciembre, la cual mantiene en su articulado el derecho de las familias internadas que estuvieran a la espera de expulsión a que se les facilite un alojamiento separado de modo que se garantice un grado adecuado de intimidad. Los anteriores artículos del Reglamento de los CIES recogían fórmulas vagas acerca de esta obligación que distaban mucho del reconocimiento estricto que se realiza en la norma europea.

En la misma sentencia, se han anulado también otros preceptos de este Reglamento de funcionamiento y régimen interno de los CIES que versaban sobre la posibilidad de llevar a cabo nuevos internamientos y los registros internos por considerarlos contrarios a lo dispuesto en la Ley de Extranjería y a la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Constitucional
Marriages Between Foreigners

Marriages Between Foreigners

It is possible for a Spanish citizen to marry a foreigner in Spain whether the foreigner´s migratory situation be legal or irregular.

However, these types of marriages have specific characteristics.  For example, the spouses must have a previous file registered in the system to be able to contract the marriage.  This is done so that authorities may determine if both spouses are capable of carrying out the marriage and if both give their consent.

The administrator in charge of carrying out this procedure is the Civil Registry (Registro Civil) of the judicial district corresponding to either spouse´s place of residence.  In order to initiate the procedure, both spouses must present a series of documents including birth certificates and proof of housing registrations (empadronamientos).

As soon as the Civil Registry completes the corresponding procedure and observes no major impediments, they will authorize the contraction of marriage.

What consequences does a contraction of marriage between a Spaniard and a foreigner have?  This type of marriage will give rise to the legal consequences related to marriages.  Furthermore, due to the special condition that the spouses are in, the Spanish immigration law will provide certain established benefits in favor of the Spaniard´s spouse.


Translated by: Katherine Pascal

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